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Explain in detail the relevant knowledge about the intrauterine device

In today's society, more than 150 million women use IUDs for contraception. IUDs have become the second widely used contraceptive method after tubal sterilization.


There are many types of IUDs on the market. The newer and widely used is the plastic T-ring, also called 7-type or Y-ring. The diameter of the ring is about 2mm, and the length is long or short. There are two thin polyethylene arms attached to the uterine cavity. .


IUDs are classified as non-medicinal or medicinal. The non-medicinal intrauterine device was marketed in the 1870s. It is made entirely of polyethylene (pharmaceutical active plastic), which cannot be penetrated by radiation and can be seen under X-rays. The famous ones are Lippes ring and Margulies ring.


After decades of evolution, by the end of the 1870s, people added metal compounds (copper, gold, silver) and progesterone to the contraceptive devices that only had contraceptive effects.


The device of the IUD not only has the effect of contraception, but also has a therapeutic effect. It can treat abnormal uterine bleeding, endometrial hyperplasia, or hormone replacement therapy (HRT).




The role of hysteroscopy in the process of IUD placement:


Before placing the intrauterine device, an ultrasound examination should be performed in order to rule out uterine and fallopian tube diseases. For complicated uterine cavity, it is best to place a V-shaped IUD.


The best time to place the IUD is the menstrual period, which can not only avoid accidental pregnancy, but also the opening of the fallopian tube is wider during this period, and the IUD can be better fixed in the uterine cavity. Before putting on the ring, we must first open the speculum, sterilize the cervix, and then use the cervical forceps to pull the anterior lip of the cervix. Use the probe to measure the depth of the uterine cavity gently and slowly to prevent uterine perforation. If the depth of the uterine cavity is appropriate, we must carefully Put the IUD into the uterine cavity.


Depending on the type of IUD, the depth of placement is different, but no matter what type of IUD, it must be placed at the fundus of the uterus. Occasionally, the IUD will be placed on the cervix by mistake. It may be Because the operation is not standardized, it may also be because of cervical stenosis/adhesion. The IUD may also detach from its original position due to various reasons (such as growth and compression of submucosal fibroids). There is usually no clinical symptoms for changes in the position of the IUD. Therefore, it is best to perform an ultrasound examination after placement/one menstrual cycle to clarify the position of the IUD. If the displacement is highly suspected, a hysteroscopy is necessary for further clarification.


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