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Intrauterine contraceptive principle

Today, the editor introduces the principle of intrauterine device contraception:


        1. The copper ions in the copper intrauterine birth control ring increase the sterile inflammatory reaction of the endometrium and interfere with the enzymatic system activity necessary for implantation, which is not conducive to the implantation and blastocyst development of fertilized eggs.


        2. Copper ions may also change the biochemical characteristics of cervical mucus, affect the sperm's activity and capacitation, thereby further enhancing the contraceptive effect. Copper ions can also directly kill sperm and fertilized eggs.


        3. The role of prostaglandins: the long-term stimulation of the birth control ring makes the endometrium produce prostaglandins. On the one hand, prostaglandins can increase the contraction of the uterus and the peristalsis of the fallopian tubes, and promote fertilized eggs with insufficient development and division to be sent to the uterine cavity in advance to affect implantation.


        4. A large amount of prostaglandins can strengthen the role of estrogen, so that the decidual reaction of the endometrium during pregnancy is inhibited, which is not conducive to implantation of fertilized eggs.


        5. The ring can interfere with the normal cycle changes of the endometrium, which is not conducive to implantation; at the same time, it can also affect the delivery or energy acquisition of sperm. Intrauterine devices containing high doses of levonorgestrel may also inhibit ovulation, change the nature of cervical mucus, and are not conducive to sperm penetration.


        The mechanism of human pregnancy is that a woman's ovary expels an egg, which is fertilized in the ampulla of the fallopian tube, and then develops into an embryo (mulberry embryo) in the fallopian tube, and then the embryo is discharged into the uterus to grow on the bed. And contraception is to block any of these steps.


        The contraceptive principle of the IUD (contraceptive ring) is: when an embryo is about to implant in the uterus, the continuous birth control ring scrapes the uterine wall, causing sterile inflammation of the uterus and preventing the embryo from normal in the uterus The bed is conceived, causing miscarriage to achieve contraception. The essence of the IUD (birth control ring) is a long-term gentle curettage.


        Inert intrauterine device: made of stainless steel wire or plastic, silicone, such as metal single ring, twist ring and stainless steel palace ring.


        With copper intrauterine device: It is a kind of active intrauterine device that is widely used at present, and uses copper to kill the sperm or fertilized egg to enhance the contraceptive effect.


        Progesterone-releasing IUD: The progesterone contained in the IUD is slowly and constantly released into the uterine cavity, which improves the contraceptive effect and can significantly reduce bleeding.


        Intrauterine device that releases hemostatic drugs: It can effectively control the increase in menstrual volume after the IUD is placed.


        The foreign body action of the IUD can cause asymptomatic inflammation of the endometrium, thereby affecting the implantation of fertilized eggs. In addition to the above-mentioned functions, the copper-containing intrauterine device in addition to the above-mentioned functions, the copper-containing intrauterine device releases copper ions, which has a killing effect on sperm and embryos.


        The IUD containing progesterone can release a small amount of progesterone into the uterine cavity for a long time, which makes the endometrium atrophy and is not conducive to the implantation of fertilized eggs. Both of these functions further strengthen the contraceptive effect of the active IUD.


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